Greek

Greek
Alphabet

The Greek letters (Greek Alphabet) have been used to write the Greek language since the late 10th century BC or early 9th century BC. It was derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. It is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts. The Greek alphabet today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields.

The alphabet of the Greek language has 24 letters:

Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

α β γ δ ε ζ η ή θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω

History of Greek Alphabet

The first script that has been proven to have been used for the writing of the Greek language is Linear B around the 15th century BC. The Greek alphabet has begun to be used since the 9th century BC.

In the 7th century BC  all the Greek city-states had already formed and used each of their own alphabets with local specificities.

In 403 BC the so-called Euclidean alphabet was introduced in Athens. The letters F, Ϟ and Α were removed and the letters H and Ω were adopted.

The Aeolian and the Doric alphabet are found in the inscriptions of Thira, Milos, Peloponnesus, Boeotia and Greater Greece, Sicily and Southern Italy. The Attic alphabet (Attica Letters) is found in the inscriptions of Attica before the time of Euclid (402 BC). The Ionic alphabet is found in inscriptions in the Ionian Sea and Asia Minor.

The Greek alphabet became the basis for the creation of the Latin alphabet. Indeed, the Latin alphabet comes mainly from the Etruscan alphabet, which in its turn, and according to the prevailing opinion today, was based on the Greek.

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Other uses

The letters of the Greek alphabet are also used in the Greek numbering system. The Greek alphabet is widely used as a symbol pool for use in the sciences either as internationally established symbols (eg π = 3,14) or for any appropriate use.

Like the Latin alphabet, Greek is used for numbering. Particularly in Astronomy, the Greek alphabet is used to number the stars, e.g. the Centaur alpha is the brightest star in the Centaur constellation, while the Omega is the 24th in brightness. After the end of the Greek letters follow the Latin letters followed by the Arabic numbers.

Did you know

The Greek language is not accidental … It was built on mathematics, and what few still know is that every word in Greek has a mathematical background. The letters in the Greek language are not sterile symbols. Upright, upside-down with special emphasis, they were all 1620 symbols used in Harmony (Music in Modern Greek). Their most important attribute is that each letter has a numeric value, each letter is a number, so by extension each word is a number.

The Greek alphabet hides an ancient prayer

An enormous knowledge locked-encoded in words because of the mathematical values they have. One of the Leaders on the subject was the greatest Pythagoras. Numbers, shapes, harmony and stars have something in common, so mathematics (numbers) geometry (shapes) harmony (music) and astronomy (stars) were sister sciences according to Pythagoras, which in the particular order we mentioned was the staircase for the evolution of the mind-soul towards the Creator. In order to be able to understand the meanings of the concepts of the words of the Ancient Greek language, we must first of all know some things about the Greek language itself. The Greek language is a mathematical masterpiece that we will try to approach.

Each letter corresponded to a number, but also to a musical tone, hence letter = number = tone (musician), which indicates that in the Greek language behind the letters-words there are numbers (literals) and musical tones.

The 4 sister sciences according to Pythagoras were:

  1. Numbers (mathematics)
  2. Shapes (Geometry)
  3. Music (Harmony)
  4. Astronomy

However, what really proves to be inconceivable is the fact that the Greek alphabet hides a secret invocation! If we take his letters and put them in line, an ancient prayer that glorifies the Light and the Soul is displayed by magic! So we have:

“Αλ φα, βη τα Γα! Αμα δε Ελ, τα εψ ιλών. Στη ίγμα, (ίνα) ζη τα, η τα, θη τα Ιώτα κατά παλλάν Δα. (Ινα) μη νυξ η, ο μικρόν (εστί) πυρός δε ίγμα ταφή εψ ιλών, φυ (οι) Ψυχή, ο μέγα (εστί)!”

The translation is as follows:

“Do not you sunlight, you are the light, come to Earth, and you, sun come, cast your rays on the baking clay.” Let it become a sediment to enable the ego to live, to exist and stand on the pulsating earth Let not the night prevail, being the little one, and risk losing the fire in the effervescent mud, and develop the Soul, which is the greatest, the most important of all! “

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Alpha - άλφα

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Alpha (uppercase Α, lowercase α; Ancient Greek: άλφα, álpha, modern pronunciation álfa) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 1. It was derived from the Phoenician and Hebrew letter aleph Aleph - an ox or leader. Letters that arose from alpha include the Latin A and the Cyrillic letter А

Alpha - άλφα

Beta - βήτα

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Beta (uppercase Β, lowercase β, or cursive ϐ; Ancient Greek: βῆτα bē̂ta or Modern Greek: βήτα víta) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 2. In Ancient Greek, beta represented the voiced bilabial plosive /b/. In Modern Greek, it represents the voiced labiodental fricative /v/. Letters that arose from beta include the Roman letter ⟨B⟩ and the Cyrillic letters ⟨Б⟩ and ⟨В⟩.

Beta - βήτα

Gamma - γάμμα

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Gamma (uppercase Γ, lowercase γ; Greek: Γάμμα Gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 3. The Greek letter Gamma Γ was derived from the Phoenician letter for the /g/ phoneme (𐤂 gīml). Letters that arose from the Greek gamma include Etruscan (Old Italic), Roman C and G, Runic kaunan ᚲ, Gothic geuua 𐌲, the Coptic Ⲅ, and the Cyrillic letters Г.

Gamma - γάμμα

Delta - δέλτα

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Delta (uppercase Δ, lowercase δ or 𝛿; Greek: δέλτα délta, [ˈðelta]) is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 4. It was derived from the Phoenician letter dalet, Letters that come from delta include Latin D and Cyrillic Д. A river delta (originally, the Nile River delta) is so named because its shape approximates the upper-case letter delta (the shape is a triangle).

Delta - δέλτα

Epsilon - έψιλον

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Epsilon (uppercase Ε, lowercase ε or lunate ϵ; Greek: Έψιλον) is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has the value five. It was derived from the Phoenician letter He He. Letters that arose from epsilon include the Roman E, Ë and Ɛ, and Cyrillic Е, È, Ё, Є and Э.

Epsilon - έψιλον

Zeta - ζήτα

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Zeta (uppercase Ζ, lowercase ζ; Greek: ζήτα, classical [d͡zɛ̌:ta] or [zdɛ̌:ta] zē̂ta; Modern Greek: [ˈzita] zíta) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 7. It was derived from the Phoenician letter zayin Zayin. Letters that arose from zeta include the Roman Z and Cyrillic З.

Zeta - ζήτα

Eta - ήτα

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Eta (uppercase Η, lowercase η; Ancient Greek: ἦτα ē̂ta [êːtaː] or Modern Greek: ήτα ita [ˈita]) is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 8. It was derived from the Phoenician letter heth Phoenician heth.svg. Letters that arose from eta include the Latin H and the Cyrillic letter И.

Eta - ήτα

Theta - θήτα

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Theta (UK: /ˈθiːtə/, US: /ˈθeɪtə/; uppercase Θ or ϴ, lowercase θ [which resembles digit 0 with horizontal line] or ϑ; Ancient Greek: θῆτα thē̂ta [tʰɛ̂ːta]; Modern: θήτα thī́ta [ˈθita]) is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, derived from the Phoenician letter. In the system of Greek numerals it has the value 9.

Theta - θήτα

Iota - ιώτα

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Theta (UK: /ˈθiːtə/, US: /ˈθeɪtə/; uppercase Θ or ϴ, lowercase θ [which resembles digit 0 with horizontal line] or ϑ; Ancient Greek: θῆτα thē̂ta [tʰɛ̂ːta]; Modern: θήτα thī́ta [ˈθita]) is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, derived from the Phoenician letter. In the system of Greek numerals it has the value 9.

Iota - ιώτα

Kappa - κάππα

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Kappa (uppercase Κ, lowercase κ or cursive ϰ; Greek: κάππα, káppa) is the 10th letter of the Greek alphabet, used to represent the /k/ sound in Ancient and Modern Greek. In the system of Greek numerals, Kʹ has a value of 20. It was derived from the Phoenician letter kaph Phoenician kaph.svg. Letters that arose from kappa include the Roman K and Cyrillic К.

Kappa - κάππα

Lambda - λάμδα

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Lambda, Λ, λ (uppercase Λ, lowercase λ; Greek: Λάμ(β)δα lam(b)da) is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals lambda has a value of 30. Lambda is related to the Phoenician letter Lamed Lamedh. Letters in other alphabets that stemmed from lambda include the Latin L and the Cyrillic letter El (Л, л).

Lambda - λάμδα

Mu - μυ

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Mu (uppercase Μ, lowercase μ; Ancient Greek μῦ [mŷː], Modern Greek: μι or μυ [mi]) is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 40. Mu was derived from the Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol for water. Letters that arose from mu include the Roman M and the Cyrillic М.

Mu - μυ

Nu - νυ

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Nu (/njuː/; uppercase Ν lowercase ν; Modern Greek: Νι Ni [ni]), is the 13th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 50. It is derived from the ancient Phoenician alphabet nun Phoenician nun.svg. Its Latin equivalent is N, though the lowercase resembles the Roman lowercase v.

Nu - νυ

Xi - ξι

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Xi (uppercase Ξ, lowercase ξ; Greek: ξι) is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet. It is pronounced [ksi] in Modern Greek, and generally /zaɪ/ or /saɪ/ in English. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 60. Xi was derived from the Phoenician letter samekh Phoenician samekh.

Xi - ξι

Pi - πι

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Pi (/paɪ/; Greek: [pi], uppercase Π, lowercase π) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, representing [p]. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 80. It was derived from the Phoenician letter Pe (Phoenician pe). Letters that arose from pi include Cyrillic Pe (П, п), Coptic pi), and Gothic pairthra.

Omicron - όμικρον

Omicron - όμικρον

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Omicron (uppercase Ο, lowercase ο, literally "small o": Όμικρον, o mikron, micron meaning 'small' in contrast to omega) is the 15th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 70. This letter is derived from the Phoenician letter ayin Phoenician ayin.

Pi - πι

Rho - ρώ

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Rho (/roʊ/; uppercase Ρ, lowercase ρ or ϱ; Greek: ῥῶ) is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 100. It is derived from Phoenician letter res. Letters that arose from rho include Roman R and Cyrillic Er(Р).

Rho - ρώ

Sigma - σίγμα

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Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; Greek: σίγμα) In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 200. When used at the end of a word (when the word is not all caps), the final form (ς) is used. The shape and alphabetic position of sigma is derived from Phoenician shin.

Sigma - σίγμα

Tau - ταυ

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Tau (uppercase Τ, lowercase τ; Greek: ταυ [taf]) is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 300. Tau was derived from the Phoenician letter taw Phoenician taw). Letters that arose from tau include Roman T and Cyrillic Te (Т, т).

Tau - ταυ

Upsilon - ύψιλον

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Upsilon (/ˈʌpsɪlɒn, ˈjuːp-, ˈuːp-, ˈʊp-, -lən/; or UK: /ʌpˈsaɪlən, juːp-/; uppercase Υ, lowercase υ; Greek: ύψιλον ýpsilon [ˈipsilon]) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, Υʹ has a value of 400. It is derived from the Phoenician waw Phoenician waw.

Upsilon - ύψιλον

Phi - φι

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Phi (/faɪ/;[1] uppercase Φ, lowercase φ or ϕ; Ancient Greek: ϕεῖ pheî [pʰé͜e]; Modern Greek: φι fi [fi]) is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet. Its origin is uncertain but it may be that phi originated as the letter qoppa. The Cyrillic letter Ef (Ф, ф) descends from phi.

Phi - φι

Chi - χι

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Chi (uppercase Χ, lowercase χ; Greek: χῖ) is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet, pronounced /kaɪ/ or /kiː/ in English. Chi was also included in the Cyrillic script as the letter Х, with the phonetic value /x/ or /h/.

Chi - χι

Psi - ψι

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Psi (uppercase Ψ, lowercase ψ; Greek: Ψι Psi) is the 23rd letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numeric value of 700. In both Classical and Modern Greek, the letter indicates the combination /ps/ (as in English word "lapse").

Psi - ψι

Omega - ωμέγα

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Omega (capital: Ω, lowercase: ω; Greek Ωμέγα) is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet. In the Greek numeric system, it has a value of 800. The word literally means "great O" (ō mega, mega meaning "great"), as opposed to omicron, which means "little O" (o mikron, micron meaning "little").

Omega - ωμέγα

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